Migraine and its Homoeopathic Management

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                        Migraine and its Homoeopathic Management

By Dr Roshni

BHMS (DU)

MD( Dr. B.R.Ambedkar University)

as a major global public health

Abstract:  Migraine is one of the most disabling disease of neurological disorders affecting the Quality of Life(QOL) of a patient.  Although several various combination analgesics, anti emetics are used in Conventional mode of treatment for Migraine and these have various adverse effects, further impairing the QOL. Homoeopathy helps in improving the QOL of a Patient through symptomatic treatment without any adverse side effects.

Keywords: Migraine, Quality of life, Homoeopathy.

Abbreviation: QOL, ICHD

Introduction:

Migraine” is a benign, episodic syndrome of headache associated with other symptoms of neurologic dysfunction in varying admixtures. In both sexes of all ages, migraine is responsible for 1.4% of total years of life lost due to a disability ­ (1). The annual years of healthy life lost per 100,000 people from migraine in India has increased by 11.4% since 1990,an average of 0.5% a year .Migraine without aura is the common type of migraine among all types of Migraine (2)..

Allopathic treatment aims towards pain management only and does not provide permanent relief as chance of recurrence always there. Treatment of an acute attack consists of simple analgesia with an antiemetic. Long term use of these has adverse side effects further impairing QOL. Recent reviews show a clear increase in the number of individuals accessing complementary and alternative medicine services, including patients with Migraine. Homoeopathy is the most holistic and alternative medicine and is based on treating the Patient as a Whole. Homoeopathy is the most holistic and alternative medicine, and is based on treating the patient as a whole. The holistic approach in Homoeopathy helps in improving the QOL of a patient by symptomatic treatment.

Aetiology

  1. Age: Migraine can occur at all ages and usually begins before the age of 20. The Occurrence is highest from the ages of 25 years to 55 years. Before puberty, migraine prevalence is higher in boys than in girls. As adolescence approaches, incidence and prevalence increases until approximately age 40, after which it declines.(3)
  2. Hereditary Influences: Heredity has been shown to play an important role in migraine pathogenesis. About 50% of affected individuals have a first-degree relative also suffering from migraine (4).
  3. Migraine triggers:

A migraine trigger is any factor that on exposure or withdrawal leads to the development of an acute migraine headache (5).

  • Food
  • Environment factors
  • Sleep
  • Stress
  • Hormonal Factors

Clinical Variants of Migraine:

  • Migraine with Aura (Classical Migraine)
  1. Migraine with typical aura
  2. Migraine with brainstem aura
  • Hemiplegic migraine
  1. Retinal migraine
  • Migraine without Aura (Common Migraine)

Sign and Symptoms of Migraine:

According to International Headache Society Diagnostic Criteria for migraine without Aura.

A. At least five attacks fulfilling criteria B-D

B. Headache attacks lasting 4-72hr (untreated or unsuccessfully treated)

C. Headache has at least two of the following four characteristics:

1.Unilateral location

2.Pulsating quality

3.Moderate or Severe pain intensity

4.Aggravation by or causing avoidance of routine physical activity (eg,walking or climbing stairs)

D.During headache at least one of the following:

1.Nausea and/or Vomiting

2.Photophobia and Phonophobia

The pain can shift from one side of a person’s head to the other over the course of the headache, or more commonly, may begin on one side and then gradually involve the other side.

According to International Headache Society Diagnostic Criteria for migraine with Aura

Recurrent attacks, lasting minutes, of unilateral fully-reversible visual, sensory or other central nervous system symptoms that usually develop gradually and are usually followed by headache and associated migraine symptoms.

A. At least two attacks fulfilling criteria B and C

B. One or more of the following fully reversible aura symptoms:

  1. Visual
  2. Sensory
  3. Speech and/or language
  4. Motor
  5. Brainstem
  6. Retinal

C. At least three of the following six characteristics:

  1. At least one aura symptom spreads gradually over ?5 minutes
  2. Two or more aura symptoms occur in succession
  3. Each individual aura symptom lasts 5-60 minutes1
  4. At least one aura symptom is unilateral2
  5. At least one aura symptom is positive3
  6. The aura is accompanied, or followed within 60 minutes, by headache

D. Not better accounted for by another ICHD-3( International Classification of Headache Disorders) diagnosis.

Notes:

  1. When for example three symptoms occur during an aura, the acceptable maximal duration is 3×60 minutes. Motor symptoms may last up to 72 hours.
  2. Aphasia is always regarded as a unilateral symptom; dysarthria may or may not be.
  3. Scintillations and pins and needles are positive symptoms of aura.

Homoeopathic Management:

Homoeopathic therapeutics of Migraine

Here are the following few important Homoeopathic remedies for Migraine:

Argentum nitricum: Headache: congestive, with fullness and heaviness; with sense of expansion; habitual gastric, of literary men; from dancing; hemicrania, pressive, screwing in frontal eminence or temple; ending in bilious vomiting; < from any exhaustive mental labor; > by pressure or tight bandaging.

Belladonna:  Headache worse on right side and when lying down; Pain; fullness, especially in forehead, also occiput, and temples. Pains usually in short attacks; cause redness of face and eyes; fullness of head and throbbing of carotids.

Gelsemium: Headache: beginning in the cervical spine; pains extend over head, causing bursting sensation in forehead and eyeballs; < by mental exertion; from smoking; heat of sun; lying with head low.

Iris Versicolor: Right temples especially affected. Sick headache, worse rest; begins with a blur before eyes, after relaxing from a mental strain. Burning of whole alimentary canal. Vomiting, sour bloody, biliary.

Natrium Muriaticum: Headache: anaemic, of school girls; from sunrise to sunset; left sided. Pain as though a thousand little hammers were knocking in the brain. Headaches beginning at 10 to 11 A.M., lasting until 3 P.M. or evening.  Headaches are periodical, every day, or third day, or fourth day.

Sanguinaria Canadensis: Periodical sick headache; pain begins in occiput, spreads upwards, and settles over eyes, especially right. Periodic sick headache; begins in the morning, increases during the day, lasts till evening; head feels as if it must burst, or as if eyes would be pushed out; throbbing, lancinating pains through brain, worse on the right side, especially in the forehead and vertex.

Spigelia Anthelmia: Nervous headache; periodical, beginning in morning at base of brain, spreading over the head and locating in eye, orbit and temple of left side. Sensation: as if eyes were too large for the orbits; sensitve to touch.

Silicea Terra: Chronic sick headaches, since some severe disease of youth; ascending from nape of neck to the vertex, as if coming from the spine and locating in one eye, especially the right; < draught of air or uncovering the head; > pressure and wrapping up warmly ; > profuse urination.

Repertorial Approach in Migraine:

Rubrics related to Migraine in Kent’s Repertory (6)

Chapter-Head

 Pain Sides,one side: ALUM,ARG-N,COFF,KALI-P,KALI-I,KALI-C,PULS,SARS,SPIG,SUL-AC, VERB,ZINC

Pain, Bursting, Weeks, every Six: MAG-M

Pain – Sides, one side, blurred vision before the attack: IRIS

Pain- Sides,one side- left: BROM,SEP,SPIGELIA

Pain,right: BELL,CALC,CARB-V,IGN,IRIS,SABAD,SEPIA

Pain, Noises from: BELL,CALC,NAT-A,NAT-C,THER

Pain,light,in general,from :BELL,CALC

Pain, sleep,after amel: PHOS

Rubrics related to Migraine in Boericke Repertory (7)

Chapter:Head

 Headache( Cephalgia) cause from:

Coffee – Nux-v

Spirituous LiquorNux-v; Ant-c; Zinc-met

Sleep,loss – Nux-v

Sunlight or heat- Bell; Gels; Glon;Nat-c

Weather changesCalc-p

Conclusion:

Homoeopathic medicines are helpful in improving the Quality of Life of Patient suffering from Migraine. The purpose of this study may help to carry out future research on other parameters to establish the scientific approach of Homoeopathy in the management of Migraine.

References:

  • Leonardi M, Steiner T, Scher A, Lipton R. The global burden of migraine: measuring disability in headache disorders with WHO’s Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The Journal of Headache and Pain. 2005;6(6):429-440.
  • Stewart W, Linet M, Celentano D, Natta M, Ziegler D. Age- and Sex-specific Incidence Rates of Migraine with and without Visual Aura. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1991;134(10):1111-1120.
  • Bigal M, Liberman J, Lipton R. Age-dependent prevalence and clinical features of migraine. Neurology. 2006;67(2):246-251.
  • Mulder E, van Baal C, Gaist D, Kallela M, Kaprio J, Svensson D et al. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Migraine: A Twin Study Across Six Countries. Twin Research. 2003;6(5):422-431.
  • Rist P, Buring J, Kurth T. Dietary patterns according to headache and migraine status: A cross-sectional study. Cephalalgia. 2014;35(9):767-775.
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  • Boericke W. Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica & Repertory. Reprint ed. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers(P) Ltd; 1997;700-715.